Keynote and Honoree:|
President and Chief Executive Officer, Battelle Memorial Institute
Keynote Presentation: “The Evolving R&D Model: International Trends and U.S. Competitiveness”
Abstract: “The Evolving R&D Model: International Trends and U.S. Competitiveness”
Since at least the 17th century, innovations in materials sciences have been critical to solving complex national security, health, and energy problems—including the nexus between these areas. During the next 50 years, there is compelling evidence that there will be unprecedented demographic and economic changes as the global population increases from 7 to 9 billion. The addition of these two billion people will strain an already tight supply of food, water, and energy and create new national security and health-related issues. There is no simple solution to these challenges, so countries around the world are aggressively investing in R&D, education, and infrastructure initiatives. Material sciences will play a leading role in overcoming these challenges, but in order to do so there needs to be a renewed emphasis on scientific discovery and leadership, global R&D collaboration, and the ability to adapt to an increasingly dynamic marketplace. Examples of potential approaches will be discussed.
The winner of the 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Materials & Society Award (formerly the J. Herbert Hollomon Award), Jeffrey Wadsworth has been president and chief executive officer (CEO) of Battelle Memorial Institute since January 2009.
Battelle is the world’s largest nonprofit research and development organization, executing about $6.5 billion of work annually and employing about 24,500 people. Prior to becoming CEO, Wadsworth led Battelle’s Global Laboratory Operations business, overseeing six major laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), one for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, and one for the United Kingdom’s Department of Energy and Climate Change. He also led the expansion of Battelle’s operations into China, Japan, Korea, and India and the development of partnerships with the private sector in those nations.
Wadsworth was educated at Sheffield University in England, where he earned both a bachelor’s degree and Ph.D. in Metallurgy. Sheffield also later awarded him a Doctor of Metallurgy degree for his published work, as well as an honorary Doctor of Engineering degree—the university’s highest recognition. Wadsworth came to the United States in 1976 and has worked at Stanford University, Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In 2002, he joined Battelle and served as a member of the White House Transition Planning Office for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. From 2003 to June 2007, he was director of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the DOE’s largest multipurpose science laboratory.
A 2000 TMS Fellow, Wadsworth has authored or co-authored nearly 300 scientific papers and one book, and has been granted four U.S. patents. He was elected a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering in 2005 and the Chinese Academy of Engineering in 2012. His technical contributions are recognized internationally in the fields of superplasticity of metals and ceramics, refractory metals, high temperature materials, and Damascus and other ancient steels. As a board member of Achieve, Inc. and the Business Higher Education Forum, Wadsworth is committed to leading national efforts to enhance science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education.
Wadsworth’s recent awards include ASM International’s 2011 Medal for the Advancement of Research, the 2010 Navigator Award from the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, the 2010 Friendship Award of the State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs for contributions and dedication to China’s economic construction and social development, the 2009 National Materials Advancement Award from the Federation of Materials Societies, the 2009 TMS/ASM Distinguished Lectureship in Materials & Society, and the 2009 Globe and Anchor Award from the Marine Corps Scholarship Foundation.
CRAIG R. BARRETT|
Retired Chief Executive Officer/Chairman of the Board, Intel Corporation
Topic: Research and Development—The Key to Competitiveness in the 21st Century
Abstract: “Research and Development: The Key To Competitiveness In The 21st Century”
The 21st Century has been appropriately labeled the knowledge and innovation century. The key factors that make it possible for a society to succeed in this century are smart people, smart ideas, and the right environment to let the first two come together and do something wonderful and exciting. This means that quality education and continued investment in basic research and development are key success factors. Combining this with environmental factors—such as protection of intellectual property, a vibrant venture capital industry, appropriate tax and regulatory laws, and a social consciousness where the fear of failure is absent—is key for economic growth and success.
Most countries around the world have recognized these success factors and are moving forward to compete. Key to these efforts is the recognition that the American Research University, with its close association to industry, is at the center of innovation. Countries around the world are trying to copy this American gem while also creating the right environment for innovation. The Irish and rest of the Western Europeans are active in this area. The Russians, with their great historical emphasis on academics and research, but little experience in commercialization of research, are investing huge sums to try to recreate an MIT model in Moscow. The Chinese universities are all active in trying to remake themselves in the mode of American universities. And, throughout the rest of the world, we see more of the same.
The proven model of Silicon Valley, or Route 128, has captured the imagination of the world and all are attempting to copy this success. As a result, it is no surprise to see technology incubators everywhere in the world, whether you are in Lebanon, Chile, or the Netherlands. Success is not assured for any of these approaches, but it is clear that there will be more competition for the American model than ever before.
Craig Barrett joined Intel Corporation in 1974 and held positions of vice president, senior vice president, and executive vice president from 1984 to 1990. In 1992, he was elected to Intel Corporation’s Board of Directors and was promoted to chief operating officer in 1993. Barrett became Intel’s fourth president in 1997 and chief executive officer in 1998. In 2009, he stepped down as chairman of the Board, a post he held from 2005 to 2009.
Barrett attended Stanford University where he received his Bachelor of Science, Master of Science and Ph.D. degrees in Materials Science. After graduation, he joined the faculty of Stanford in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, rising to the rank of associate professor. He was also a Fulbright Fellow at the Danish Technical University in Denmark and a NATO Postdoctoral Fellow at the National Physical Laboratory in England. A winner of the 1969 TMS Robert Lansing Hardy Gold Medal, and the 2002 J. Herbert Hollomon Award of Acta Materialia in Materials and Society, Barrett is also author of a textbook, Principles of Engineering Materials, which is still in use today.
Barrett currently chairs Change the Equation, a national education science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) coalition, Achieve Inc., and BASIS Schools Inc. He also co-chairs the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advisory Board and is international co-chair of the Skolkovo Foundation Council. He is a member of the faculty of Thunderbird School of Global Management and serves on the Council for Foreign Relations Task Force on U.S. Education Reform and National Security. He has co-chaired the Business Coalition for Student Achievement, the National Innovation Initiative Leadership Council, and has served as a member of the Board of Trustees for the U.S. Council for International Business and the Clinton Global Initiative Education Advisory Board. Barrett has also been a member of the National Governors' Association Task Force on Innovation America, the Committee on Scientific Communication and National Security, and is past chair of the National Academy of Engineering.
SIEGFRIED S. HECKER|
Co-Director, Center for International Security and Cooperation
Professor, Department of Management Science and Engineering, Stanford University;
Emeritus Director, Los Alamos National Laboratory
Topic: Prospects and Challenges for a Global Expansion of Nuclear Energy
Abstract: “Prospects and Challenges for a Global Expansion of Nuclear Energy”
Nuclear energy holds the potential of a sustainable, affordable, and clean source of energy available
on a scale that can help meet the world’s growing need for energy and slow the pace of global climate
change. However, the Fukushima accident was a grim reminder of the importance of nuclear safety.
Nuclear energy must also be economically competitive, a great challenge in the United States where
the cost of reactor construction has skyrocketed and gas and oil supplies are expanding rapidly
because of hydraulic fracturing technologies. Small modular reactors (SMRs) may hold the best hope
for the U.S. reactor industry. SMRs also offer significant opportunities for materials industries
and materials research and development. The nuclear industry must also find a socially acceptable
waste disposal option. Most of the global nuclear reactor demand comes from developing countries.
China and India have ambitious plans and programs underway. Several dozen additional countries
have expressed interest in developing nuclear power, but most of them lack the technical and
regulatory expertise for such an expansion. Providing safe and secure nuclear power in such countries
will be challenging, as will be the additional strain that a global spread of nuclear power will
put on the nuclear nonproliferation regime.
Hecker is co-director of the Stanford University Center for International Security and Cooperation, Senior Fellow of the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, and professor (research) in the Department of Management Science and Engineering. Joining the Los Alamos National Laboratory as a technical staff member in the Physical Metallurgy Group in 1973, he has served as chair of the Center for Materials Science and division leader of the Materials Science and Technology Division prior to becoming laboratory director. Hecker began his professional career as a senior research metallurgist with the General Motors Research Laboratories in 1970 after two years as a postdoctoral appointee at Los Alamos. Hecker received his B.S. in metallurgy in 1965 and M.S. in metallurgy in 1967 from Case Institute of Technology and his Ph.D. in metallurgy in 1968 from Case Western Reserve University.
Hecker’s research interests include plutonium science, nuclear weapon policy and international security, nuclear security (including nonproliferation and counter terrorism), and cooperative nuclear threat reduction. Over the past 20 years, he has fostered cooperation with the Russian nuclear laboratories to secure and safeguard the vast stockpile of ex-Soviet fissile materials. His current interests include the challenges of nuclear India, Pakistan, North Korea, the nuclear aspirations of Iran, and the peaceful spread of nuclear energy in Central Asia and South Korea. Hecker has visited North Korea seven times since 2004, reporting back to U.S. government officials on North Korea’s nuclear progress and testifying before the U.S. Congress. Hecker works closely with the Russian Academy of Sciences and is actively involved with the U.S. National Academies.
A 1998 TMS Fellow, Hecker is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, Foreign Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Fellow of the American Physical Society, Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Among other awards, Hecker received the American Physical Society Leo Szilard Award (2011), the Eugene L. Grant Award for Excellence in Teaching (2010), the Presidential Enrico Fermi Award (2009), the American Nuclear Society Seaborg Medal (2004), the Department of Energy’s E.O. Lawrence Award (1984), the Los Alamos National Laboratory Medal (2008), the Acta Materialia J. Herbert Hollomon Award (2004), the Case Western Reserve University Alumni Association Gold Medal (2004), and the New Mexico Distinguished Public Service Award (1998).
WILLIAM D. NIX|
Professor Emeritus, Lee Otterson Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University
Topic: Linking the Challenges of Materials Technology with Opportunities in Materials Research
Abstract: “Linking the Challenges of Materials Technology with Opportunities in Materials Research”
The story of how the field of thin film and small-scale mechanical behavior developed in response to problems being faced in microelectronics is recounted. More important than solving the particular problems being faced was the recognition that new tools and techniques would be needed to address challenges in that technology in the long run. Along the way, tools and methods were developed that are now used routinely to advance completely new materials technologies. This development involved not only the identification of critical problems, but also the recognition that existing or newly emerging capabilities could be used to address those problems.
Nanoindentation, substrate curvature stress measurements, and all sorts of thin film and small-scale mechanical testing methods were developed in response to these needs and have turned out to be useful in other materials developments. In addition, the application of elementary analysis methods has proven to be useful in understanding thin film mechanical behavior. Applying Ashby's geometrically necessary dislocation density concept to indentation, using van der Merwe's misfit dislocation analysis to describe plasticity of thin metal films, and applying Griffith's crack analysis to understand intrinsic tensile stresses in polycrystalline thin films, are all examples of applying existing knowledge to the solution of newly developing problems. An example of exploiting a new opportunity was Uchic's realization that the focused ion beam instrument could be used to develop a new method for studying the mechanical properties of materials at a small scale.
Finally, the emergence of lithium-ion batteries and the need for better electrodes have provided still another set of challenges that are motivating new research. Some of this ongoing research will surely contribute to the development of better and longer-lasting lithium-ion batteries to power our electronic devices and our vehicles.
William D. Nix is a pioneering researcher in the mechanical properties of materials. At Stanford, where he also earned his master’s and doctoral degrees, he directed the Center for Materials Research, chaired the Materials Science and Engineering Department and mentored 77 Ph.D. graduates, many of whom hold prestigious appointments in universities worldwide.
A 1988 TMS Fellow, Nix has coauthored nearly 450 scholarly publications, including the textbook, The Principles of Engineering Materials. He enjoys the rare distinction of election to the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the National Academy of Engineering. His many other honors include TMS’s Robert Franklin Mehl Award and Champion H. Mathewson Award, the Acta Materialia Gold Medal Award, the Materials Research Society’s Von Hippel Award, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers’ Nadai Medal, and ASM International’s Gold Medal.
Director, National Science Foundation
Topic: Innovation in the New Era of Global Science and Engineering
Abstract: "Innovation in the New Era of Global Science and Engineering"
This presentation will highlight major trends influencing the evolution of science and engineering research and education on the global stage. Challenges and opportunities faced by national funding agencies, academic institutions, research laboratories and industry will be examined. Discussion will also include issues of the borderless knowledge enterprise, shifting demographics and global challenges that require collective effort amid stiff competition, while responding to local and national needs, fiscal constraints, and regional regulations.
Subra Suresh was unanimously confirmed by the U.S. Senate as the director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) in September 2010. As the head of this $7 billion independent federal agency, he leads the only government science agency charged with advancing all fields of fundamental science and engineering research and related education. Since joining NSF, he has established several new initiatives including, INSPIRE (Integrative NSF Support Promoting Interdisciplinary Research and Education), PEER (Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research, in collaboration with USAID), the NSF Career-Life Balance Initiative, the NSF Science Across Virtual Institutes (SAVI) Program, and the NSF Innovation Corps.
Prior to assuming his current role, Suresh served as the dean of the School of Engineering and the Vannevar Bush Professor of Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). His experimental and modeling work on the mechanical properties of structural and functional materials, innovations in materials design and characterization, and discoveries of possible connections between cellular nanomechanical processes and human disease states have shaped new fields in the intersections of traditional disciplines. He has co-authored more than 240 journal articles, registered 21 patents, and written three widely used materials science books.
Suresh received his bachelor of technology degree from the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, in First Class with Distinction; a master's degree from Iowa State University; and a doctor of science degree from MIT. Following postdoctoral research at the University of California, Berkeley, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, he joined the faculty of engineering at Brown University in December 1983, and was promoted to full professor in July 1989. He joined MIT in 1993 as the R.P. Simmons Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and served as head of MIT's Department of Materials Science and Engineering during 2000-2006.
Suresh has been elected to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Spanish Royal Academy of Sciences, Spanish Royal Academy of Engineering, German National Academy of Sciences, Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, Academy of Sciences of the Developing World, Indian National Academy of Engineering, and Indian Academy of Sciences. He has also been elected a fellow or honorary member of all the major materials research societies in the United States and India, including being inducted as a TMS Fellow in 2000. He counts among his many awards and honors the 2006 Acta Materialia Gold Medal, the 2011 Padma Shri Award from the president of India, and the 2012 Institute of Metals/Robert Franklin Mehl Award from TMS.